Thursday, May 3, 2012

Notes (Part 1)

I think this is the best place to write this thing. Since I always check on my blog to view any updates on my blog lists. I really hope I can do it well. :) And in this entry, I would like to congratulates all of my friends who will entering the next phase of life soon, regardless in term of securing a good job or getting someone who will be your halal partner till the end of time. May this upcoming step will make you closer to Allah & gives you more opportunity to become the best servant of Him.

Technical terms:

Refinery - production facilities composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw materials into valuable products.

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) - an analytical techniques that combined two techniques to single method in order to analyze mixtures of chemicals. GC separates the component of the mixture while MS characterized each of the component.

Raoult's Law -  in this law, the components are assumed to be an ideal solutions. The vapour pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapour pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the components present in the solution.

Evaporation rate - rate of materials take to vaporize. In general usage, it measures the the mass of materials vaporize from the surface per unit time.

Ignitability - capable of causing a fire.

Corrosively - capability to destroy or irreversibly damage another surface or substance in which it comes into contact.

Reactivity - tendency of substance to undergo chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, and to release energy.

Toxicity - level of poisonous.

Ventilation rate - rate of indoors air enters and leaves the building.

Auto Ignition Temperature - temperature of vapors that will ignite spontaneously from energy to the environment. 

MIE - min energy input to initiate combustion.

Some important things to ponder:

- mixture of fuel-air will burn if the percentage of the fuel is in between the UFL & LFL. Gas mixture is considered flammable if it is in between the explosive range.

- AIT - It depends on process conditions and need to be determined as closed as its conditions. Influenced by pressure, fuel type & concentration, volume of vapors and existence of additives and oxidiser. Contaminated air, increased in pressure, system volumes & oxygen concentration lower AIT. Significance -> to determine minimum safe operating temperature.

- Average value indicates the minimum safe temperature to operate. FP; 358.10 K, AIT; 598.15K, MIE; 1.219mJ, vapour mixture; 0.0954%. HC with low AIT & MIE may ignited and spread it to the whole system. Average FP tells the condition we can expect the fuel vapor to be created.

Approaches, Communications & Key challenges:

- Almost all previous measurable data was taken from previous researches in this field; 1. By Mr A.W who did investigation of fire and explosion in the drainage system related to process industry and 2. Ms N.F.A who proposed inherently safer design for hazardous waste contaminated in industrial drains.

- For some unavailable data, discuss with Supervisor or try to related formula that might helps in previous journals and books. Some of the value is unable to be calculated or cannot be found, needs to estimate the value from hydrocarbons that have the most similar chemical structure.

- From previous researches, data taken are ->77 components inside the liquid samples taken, mole fraction in both liquid and vapor phase, activity, fugacity, vapor pressure, volume percent, flash point.

- Parameters to be calculated -> evaporation rate, mass transfer coefficient, concentration of volatile in an enclosure, auto ignition temperature (for unavailable data), mass transfer number, fuel-air weight ratio, specific heat capacity for alkane group, heat of combustion using RQ online tool, then comes MIE interpolation.

- Drainage line assumption; W=0.5m, L=50m

To be continue...

~berdoa dan terus mengharapkan redha Illahi...~